Vocabulary - Basic terms

Python vocabulary

Here we provide a list of commonly used terms that you will most probably encounter when doing Python programming.

  • Variable is a way of storing values into the memory of the computer by using specific names that you define.

  • Data types

    • Integer (int) = Whole number
    • Float (float) = Decimal number
    • String (str) = Text
    • Boolean (bool) = True / False
    • List (list) = A “container” that can store any kind of values. You can create a list with square brackets e.g. [1, 2, 3, 'a', 'b', 'c'].
    • Tuple (tuple) = A similar “container” as list with a difference that you cannot update the values in a tuple. You can create a tuple with parentheses (1, 2, 3, 'a', 'b', 'c').
  • Index number is the location of specific value stored in Python lists or tuples. The first index value of list is always 0.

  • Script is a dedicated document for writing Python code that you can execute. Python script files should always have the `` .py `` file extension.

Basic vocabulary of Version Control

Few basic terms that are used often when discussing about version control (not exhaustive).

  • Repository = a location where all the files for a particular project are stored, usually abbreviated to “repo.” Each project will have its own repo, which is usually located on a server and can be accessed by a unique URL (a link to GitHub page for example).
  • Commit = To commit is to write or merge the changes made in the working copy back to the repository. Whe you commit, you are basically taking a “snapshot” of your repository at that point in time, giving you a checkpoint to which you can reevaluate or restore your project to any previous state. The terms ‘commit’ or ‘checkin’ can also be used as nouns to describe the new revision that is created as a result of committing.
  • Revision / version = A revision or a version is any change in made in any form to a document(s).
  • Clone = Cloning means creating a repository containing the revisions from another repository. This is equivalent to pushing or pulling into an empty (newly initialized) repository. As a noun, two repositories can be said to be clones if they are kept synchronized, and contain the same revisions.
  • Pull / push = Copy revisions from one repository into another. Pull is initiated by the receiving repository, while push is initiated by the source. Fetch is sometimes used as a synonym for pull, or to mean a pull followed by an update.
  • Merge = A merge or integration is an operation in which two sets of changes are applied to a file or set of files.